Human narratives in the Bible

Q: I’ve been trying to read the Bible. I started in Genesis but came across the story of the nephilim (Gen 6:1-4), which appar­ently are the offspring of angels and human women? What is this all about? Is this something we believe? (Lexington, SC)

A: I’m very grateful for your question, especially because it started with your resolution to read the Bible. It’s important for ev­ery Catholic to read, study, and pray the Sacred Scriptures. Thank you for taking this part of our disciple­ship so seriously. And now to your specific question.

Genesis, Chapters 1-11, are pre-history. This means that these stories were passed along by oral tradition before things were written down. They were literally before history. This clarification is important because it should shape how we read this part of the Bible. Namely, these eleven chap­ters should be approached with a certain flexibility and an under­standing of figurative literature (Catechism of the Catholic Church, #390).

The use of figurative literature is essential to human narratives since it emphasizes a pivotal lesson by using exaggerated figures or events to stress the importance of the lesson. While such an approach can distress our Western empirical minds, figurative language is born from the human heart and has been with the human family since before history.

According to Genesis 6, there­fore, the nephilim are the giants born from sexual union between the “sons of God” and the “daugh­ters of man.” It’s possible that in the light of the figurative world­view of the ancient world, the hu­man author of this story actually meant giants, angels, and human women.

If this was the case, the author was most likely figuratively de­scribing a very human phenom­enon. We suspect that the sons of Seth, who were the children of God as the grandchildren of Adam and Eve, were attracted to the daugh­ters of Cain, who had been removed from the fellowship of the blessed and were considered “of the earth” since he and his descendants no lon­ger shared God’s blessing. It appears that from such a forbidden union, the children were of incredibly large size, to the point that they were considered a new breed of human beings, namely, the nephilim, or giants.

The lesson of the story is the importance of staying true to the blessing of God and to be cautious in terms of who one marries. It is interesting that within the first few chapters of salvation history, we already see the implicit results of poor sexual partners and the conse­quences of being “unyoked” to those who chose to live outside of God’s blessings (2 Cor 6:14).


Q: In a previous column you answered that Catholic wed­dings have to be celebrated in a church. Pope Francis celebrated a wedding on an airplane. Have the rules changed? (Greenville, SC)

A: Yes, Pope Francis dispensed with several aspects of mar­riage preparation and liturgical law in the well-advertised in-flight wedding he celebrated during his recent apostolic journey to South America.

While this was a surprise in some respects, you might recall from the same column you quoted, that I indicated “for serious rea­sons” a bishop could suspend the requirement of a wedding in a church. Based on news reports, the spouses in question could not be married in their parish church because it had been destroyed in an earthquake and so the pope decided to celebrate their wedding on the airplane.

It’s important to stress that the authority to make such a decision is reserved to local bishops in their respective dioceses or to the pope and cardinals, who have universal jurisdiction. Parish priests, how­ever, are bound by liturgical law for the reasons explained in the last column.

Father Jeffrey Kirby is administrator of Our Lady of Grace Church in Lancaster. Email him your questions at

About Father Jeffrey Kirby | The Catholic Miscellany 67 Articles
Father Jeffrey Kirby is pastor of Our Lady of Grace Church in Lancaster. He holds an M.A. in philosophy from Franciscan University of Steubenville and a doctorate in moral theology from Holy Cross University in Rome. Father Kirby is the author of several books including, "Lord, Teach Us to Pray" (St. Benedict Press, 2014). To learn more about him, please visit or follow him at Twitter/fatherkirby.